Chemical reactions are an essential part of technology, contributing to various human activities that are a part of our daily lives. Examples of chemical reactions that we encounter everyday include the burning of fuels and the making of wine and beer. Chemical reactions are also widely present in nature, from the chemical weathering of rocks, photosynthesis in plants and the respiration process in animals.
In the broader aspect, there are three types of reactions : physical, chemical and nuclear. Chemical reactions can be further divided into many categories. Six common types of chemical reactions are: synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, double-displacement, combustion and acid-base reactions. Scientists classify them based on what happens when going from reactants to products. This is helpful in predicting the reactivity of reagents and the products formed from the reactions. A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances, the reactants, undergo chemical transformation to form one or more different substances, the products.
It is a process that involves rearrangement of the constituent atoms of the reactants to form products, without changing the nuclei of the atoms. For instance, in a process used to manufacture soda and seltzer, carbon dioxide is bubbled into water under pressurized conditions and forms a new compound known as carbonic acid H 2 CO 3. By this equation, you know a chemical reaction has occurred. A physical reaction is different from a chemical reaction.
Physical changes only involve the change of state, for example, the freezing of water to ice and the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide. In both scenarios, the chemical identity of reactants, H 2 O and CO 2did not change. The products are still made up of the same compounds as the reactants. A nuclear reaction is also distinguished from a chemical reaction.
It involves the collision of two nuclei to form one or more nuclides that are different from parent nuclei. For example, Ernest Rutherford performed the first artificial transmutation by exposing nitrogen gas to alpha particles, forming the isotope 17 O and ejecting a proton in this process. The element in the reactant changed, thus a reaction had taken place. The most common types of chemical reactions are synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion and acid-base.
However, such categorization is not exclusive. For example, an acid-base reaction can also be classified as a double displacement reaction. A synthesis reaction is one in which two or more substances are combined to form a more complex one. The chemical equation for a general form of synthesis reaction is as follows:.
One example of a synthesis reaction is the combination of iron Fe and sulfur S to form iron sulfide. Another example is when sodium and chlorine gas are combined to produce a more complex molecule, the sodium chloride. A decomposition reaction works quite the opposite to a synthesis reaction. It is a reaction where a more complex substance breaks apart into simpler ones. A general form of a decomposition reaction can be written as:.MindMaster flow chart, mind map, org charts.
Lab Apparatus List.Types of Chemical Reactions
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5.3: Types of Chemical Reactions
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Many have been translated into different languages. This page collects and describes simulations from past issues.Nevo Mantel. Lab report: Types of chemical reaction. The sparks suddenly make the fire turn on and after turning it on, and after turning it on we regulate the oxygen making the fire blue or yellowish orange. After getting the match lit and putting it on top of the test tube the fire goes out because of carbon dioxide released.
Transparent liquid, really like water, can see through, has no color. When put in the steel wool gets from shiny grey to dark brown and red or maroon, the iron had its color change completely.
Separate into liquid and solid, yellow transparent liquid on top and light yellow solid on bottom, making a suspension. Suddenly the chemicals reacted transforming the color from yellow and transparent to sudden red tomato color. It turns really dark pink and can be seen through. After, there is more chemical poured in so the pink gets more intense and the beaker gets warm in the bottom. It continues pink and since there is poured a big amount of chemical making it get intense pink.
The gas was colorless, no smell, invisible. Regular steel wood, gray, rough. The steel wood got darker and momentarily hot. The substance got black and together. Both base and acid were smell less and colorless. The mixture of HCL with 2 drops of phenolphthalein was still the same, with several drops of NaOH it got totally pink. It kept pink but if one drop of any element was placed on the beaker if would get colorless again. Both liquids a weak smell and colorless. After mixing the liquids, it became a yellow liquid.
Precipitated matter and the liquid was clearer. It was like a suspension. The liquid was blue and had no smell. The steel wood, stated floating and gradually was going down, it was getting red as rust.Many chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. Having a thorough understanding of these types of reactions will be useful for predicting the products of an unknown reaction. The five basic types of chemical reactions are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion.
Analyzing the reactants and products of a given reaction will allow you to place it into one of these categories. Some reactions will fit into more than one category. A combination reactionalso known as a synthesis reactionis a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single new substance. Combination reactions can also be called synthesis reactions. The general form of a combination reaction is:. One combination reaction is two elements combining to form a compound.
Solid sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas to product solid sodium chloride.
One sort of combination reaction that occurs frequently is the reaction of an element with oxygen to form an oxide. Metals and nonmetals both react readily with oxygen under most conditions.
Magnesium reacts rapidly and dramatically when ignited, combining with oxygen from the air to produce a fine powder of magnesium oxide. A decomposition reaction is a reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances.
The general form of a decomposition reaction is:. Most decomposition reactions require an input of energy in the form of heat, light, or electricity.
Type of Reactions Lab Answers
Binary compounds are compounds composed of just two elements. The simplest kind of decomposition reaction is when a binary compound decomposes into its elements.
Mercury II oxide, a red solid, decomposes when heated to produce mercury and oxygen gas. A reaction is also considered to be a decomposition reaction even when one or more of the products is still a compound.
A metal carbonate decomposes into a metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. For example, calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
Metal hydroxides decompose on heating to yield metal oxides and water. Sodium hydroxide decomposes to produce sodium oxide and water. A single-replacement reaction is a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound. The general form of a single-replacement also called single-displacement reaction is:. When the element that is doing the replacing is a nonmetal, it must replace another nonmetal in a compound, and the general equation becomes:.
Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper. When a strip of magnesium metal is placed in an aqueous solution of copper II nitrate, it replaces the copper. The products of the reaction are aqueous magnesium nitrate and solid copper metal. Many metals react easily with acids, and, when they do so, one of the products of the reaction is hydrogen gas. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen see figure below.
Figure Sodium metal reacts vigorously when dropped into a container of water, giving off hydrogen gas. A large piece of sodium will often generate so much heat that the hydrogen will ignite.
A double-replacement reaction is a reaction in which the positive and negative ions of two ionic compounds exchange places to form two new compounds. The general form of a double-replacement also called double-displacement reaction is:.
Double-replacement reactions generally occur between substances in aqueous solution.Glycolysis is an extramitochondrial pathway and is carried by a group of eleven enzymes. Glucose is converted to pyruvate in 10 steps by glycolysis.
The glycolytic patway can be divided into two phases:. This phase is also called glucose activation phase. In the preparatory phase of glycolysis, two molecules of ATP are invested and the hexose chain is cleaved into two triose phosphates.
The steps 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 together are called as the preparatory phase. This phase is also called energy extraction phase. During this phase, conversion of glyceraldehydephophate to pyruvate and the coupled formation of ATP take place. Because Glucose is split to yield two molecules of D-Glyceraldehydephosphate, each step in the payoff phase occurs twice per molecule of glucose.
The steps after 5 constitute payoff phase. Some tissues and cell types such as erythrocytes, which have no mitochondria and thus cannot oxidize pyruvate to CO2 produce lactate from glucose even under aerobic conditions.
This is a very clear description of glycolysis. It helped us to understand and memorize the steps of glycolysis very easily. Thank you very much. Name required.
Types of Chemical Reactions
Email will not be published required. It is a universal catabolic pathway in the living cells. Glycolysis can be defined as the sequence of reactions for the breakdown of Glucose 6-carbon molecule to two molecules of pyruvic acid 3-carbon molecule under aerobic conditions; or lactate under anaerobic conditions along with the production of small amount of energy. This pathway was described by Embden, Meyerhof and Parnas.
Hence, it is also called as Embden-Meyerhof pathway EM pathway. Site of Glycolysis Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of virtually all the cells of the body.
The glycolytic patway can be divided into two phases: Preparatory Phase : This phase is also called glucose activation phase. Payoff Phase : This phase is also called energy extraction phase. Step 1 : Uptake and Phosphorylation of Glucose Glucose is phosphorylated to form glucosephosphate. The reaction is catalysed by the specific enzyme glucokinase in liver cells and by non specific enzyme hexokinase in liver and extrahepatic tissue.
Hexokinase is a key glycolytic enzyme. Hexokinase catalyses a regulatory step in glycolysis that is irreversible. Step 2 : Isomerization of GlucosePhsphate to FructosePhosphate Glucosephosphate is isomerised to fructosephosphate by phosphohexose isomerase.Several general types of chemical reactions can occur based on what happens when going from reactants to products. The more common types of chemical reactions are as follows:. In combination reactionstwo or more reactants form one product.
The reaction of sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride. Depending on conditions or the relative amounts of the reactants, more than one product can be formed in a combination reaction.
Decomposition reactions are really the opposite of combination reactions. In single displacement reactionsa more active element displaces kicks out another less active element from a compound. For example, if you put a piece of zinc metal into a copper II sulfate solution, the zinc displaces the copper, as shown in this equation:. The notation aq indicates that the compound is dissolved in water — in an aq ueous solution.
If you place a piece of copper in a zinc sulfate solution, nothing will happen. The following table shows the activity series of some common metals. Notice that because zinc is more active in the table, it will replace copper, just as the preceding equation shows. In single displacement reactions, only one chemical species is displaced. In double displacement reactionsor metathesis reactionstwo species normally ions are displaced.
Most of the time, reactions of this type occur in a solution, and either an insoluble solid precipitation reactions or water neutralization reactions will be formed.
If you mix a solution of potassium chloride and a solution of silver nitrate, a white insoluble solid is formed in the resulting solution. The formation of an insoluble solid in a solution is called precipitation.
The other type of double-displacement reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base. This double-displacement reaction, called a neutralization reactionforms water. Take a look at the mixing solutions of sulfuric acid auto battery acid and sodium hydroxide lye. Combustion reactions occur when a compound, usually one containing carbon, combines with the oxygen gas in the air.
This process is commonly called burning. Heat is the most-useful product of most combustion reactions. Propane belongs to a class of compounds called hydrocarbonscompounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen. The product of this reaction is heat.
Redox reactionsor reduction-oxidation reactionsare reactions in which electrons are exchanged:. They all involve the transfer of electrons from one chemical species to another. Redox reactions are involved in combustion, rusting, photosynthesis, respiration, batteries, and more. The Common Types of Chemical Reactions.